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                  范成大的詩

                    范成大(1126-1193)字致能,號石湖居士。漢族,平江吳郡(郡治在今蘇州吳縣)人。南宋詩人。謚文穆。從江西派入手,后學習中、晚唐詩,繼承了白居易、王建、張籍等詩人和新樂府的現實主義精神,終于自成一家。風格平易淺顯、清新嫵媚。詩題材廣泛,以反映農村社會生活內容的作品成就最高。反映農村生活的作品是《四時田園雜興》,共有60首,描寫了春夏秋冬四季的農村生活,四季分別有12首。他與楊萬里、陸游、尤袤合稱南宋“中興四大詩人”。

                    范成大父母早亡,母:78歲身亡,父:46歲因病身亡家境貧寒。宋高宗紹興二十四年(公元1154)進士,初授戶曹,又任監和劑局、處州知府,以起居,假資政殿大學士出使金朝,為改變接納金國詔書禮儀和索取河南“陵寢”地事,慷慨抗節,不畏強暴,幾近被殺,不辱使命而歸,并寫成使金日記《攬轡錄》。后歷任靜江、咸都、建康等地行政長官。淳熙時,官至參知政事,因與孝宗意見相左,兩個月即去職。晚年隱居故鄉石湖。卒謚 文穆。他與尤袤、楊萬里、陸游齊名,號稱“中興四大詩人”。

                    他從江西派入手,后學習中、晚唐詩,繼承了白居易、王建、張籍等詩人新樂府的現實主義精神,終于自成一家。風格平易淺顯、清新嫵媚。詩題材廣泛,以反映農村社會生活內容的作品成就最高。他使金途中所寫的七十二首絕句,如《青遠店》、《州橋》、《雙廟》等,反映了北方人民的痛苦生活和他們的民族感情。愛國情感激昂悲壯。其《催租行》、《后催租行》、《繅絲行》、《勞畬耕》等揭露封建剝削的殘酷,表現對人民疾苦的同情。他晚年所作《四時田園雜興》六十首,描繪了農村景物、風俗人情和農民生活,風格清新明快,優美流暢,富有韻味,有民歌之特色,是古代田園詩的集大成者。這類詩在南宋末期產生極大影響。他的文賦在當時也享有盛名。詞作情長意深,前期作品與秦觀相近,后期作品則近于蘇軾。范成大的作品在南宋末年即產生了顯著的影響,到清初影響更大,當時流傳著“家劍南而戶石湖”(“劍南”指陸游《劍南詩稿》)的說法。如其中《夏日》一首說:“晝出耘田夜績麻,村莊兒女各當家。童孫未解供耕織,也傍桑陰學種瓜。”寫農民一家辛勤勞動的情景,親切、淳樸,有濃郁的鄉土氣息。他也寫了一些應酬唱和、山川行旅、嘆老嗟悲以至講論佛典禪里之作。楊萬里《石湖居士詩集序》說:“(范成大詩)大篇決流,短章斂芒;縟而不釀,縮而不僒。清新嫵媚,奄有鮑謝;奔逸雋偉,窮追太白。求其支字之陳陳,一唱之嗚嗚,不可得世。”生平詳見《宋史》卷三八六。有《石湖居士詩集》、《石湖詞》等。

                    范成大的作品在當時即有顯著影響,到清初則影響尤大,有“家劍南而戶石湖”(“劍南”指陸游《劍南詩稿》)之說。其詩風格輕巧,但好用僻典、佛典。晚年所作《四時田園雜興》(60首)是其代表作,錢鐘書在《宋詩選注》中謂之“也算得中國古代田園詩的集大成”。他同時還是著名的詞作家,或許還可說是一位地理學家。有《石湖詩集》、《石湖詞》、《桂海虞衡志》、《攬轡錄》、《驂鷺錄》、《吳船錄》、《吳郡志》等著作傳世。
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