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                  王安石的詩

                     王安石(1021—1086),字介甫,號半山,撫州臨川(今江西臨川)人。王安石既是一位大政治家,又是一位大文學家。列寧曾稱他為“中國十一世紀時的改革家”。他工散文,是“唐宋八大家”之一。亦工詩,成就更在散文之上。其詞風格獨特,洗凈五代鉛華,開啟豪放派的先聲。有輯本《臨川先生歌曲》。

                  簡介
                    王安石(北宋時期)在文學中具有突出成就。其詩“學杜得其瘦硬”,擅長于說理與修辭,善于用典故,風格遒(qiú)勁有力,警辟精絕,也有情韻深婉的作品。 著有《臨川先生文集》。現存有《王臨川集》、《臨川集拾遺》。他出生在一個小官吏家庭。父益,字損之,曾為臨江軍判官,一生在南北各地做了幾任州縣官。安石少好讀書,記憶力強,受到較好的教育。慶歷二年(1042年)登楊寘榜進士第四名,先后任淮南判官、鄞縣知縣、舒州通判、常州知州、提點江東刑獄等地方的官吏。治平四年(1067年)神宗初即位,詔安石知江寧府,旋召為翰林學士。熙寧二年(1069年)提為參知政事,從熙寧三年起,兩度任同中書門下平章事,推行新法。熙寧九年罷相后,隱居,病死于江寧(今江蘇南京市)鐘山,謚號“文”,又稱王文公。其政治變法對北宋后期社會經濟具有很深的影響,已具備近代變革的特點,被列寧譽為是“中國十一世紀偉大的改革家”。.與“韓愈、柳宗元歐陽修、蘇洵、蘇軾、蘇轍、曾鞏”,并稱“唐宋八大家”。

                    王安石不僅是一位杰出的政治家和思想家,同時也是一位卓越的文學家。他為了實現自己的政治理想,把文學創作和政治活動密切地聯系起來,強調文學的作用首先在于為社會服務,強調文章的現實功能和社會效果,主張文道合一。他的散文大致貫徹了他的文學主張,所作多為有關政令教化、適于世用之文。他反對西昆派楊億、劉筠等人空泛的靡弱文風,認為“所謂文者,務為有補于世而已矣。所謂辭者,猶器之有刻鏤繪畫也。誠使巧且華,不必適用;誠使適用,亦不必巧且華。要之以適用為本,以刻鏤繪畫為之容也。”(《上人書》)正因為安石以“務為有補于世”的“適用”觀點視為文學創作的根本,他的作品多揭露時弊、反映社會矛盾,具有較濃厚的政治色彩。今存《臨川集》、《臨川集拾遺》、《臨川先生歌曲》、《臨川先生文集》等。他所著的<<傷仲永>>在初一課本有收錄。

                    從文學角度總觀王安石的作品,無論詩、文、詞都有杰出的成就。北宋中期開展的詩文革新運動,在他手里得到了有力推動,對掃除宋初風靡一時的浮華余風作出了貢獻。但是,王安石的文學主張,卻過于強調“實用”,對藝術形式的作用往往估計不足。他的不少詩文,又常常表現得議論說理成分過重,瘦硬而缺少形象性和韻味。還有一些詩篇,論禪說佛理,晦澀干枯,但也不失大家風范,是我國詩歌史上的一顆明星。
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